Aciclovir ACValso known as acycloviris an antiviral medication. Common side effects include nausea and diarrhea. The discovery of aciclovir was announced in Aciclovir is used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections, including: Aciclovir mechanism animation of action of acyclovir by mouth does not appear to decrease the risk of pain after shingles.
Intravenous aciclovir is effective to treat severe medical conditions caused by different species of the herpes virus family, including severe localized infections of herpes virus, severe genital herpes, chickenpox and herpetic encephalitis. It is also effective in systemic or traumatic herpes infections, eczema herpeticum and Herpes simplex meningitis.
Reviews of research dating from the s show there is some effect in reducing the number and duration of lesions if aciclovir is applied at an early stage of an outbreak. This finding emphasizes the importance of testing simple, inexpensive non-ART strategies, such as aciclovir and cotrimoxazolein people with HIV.
Classified as a Category B Drug,  the CDC and others have declared that during severe recurrent or first episodes of genital herpes, aciclovir may be used. Aciclovir is recommended by the CDC for treatment of varicella during pregnancy, mechanism animation of action of acyclovir, especially during the second and third trimesters .
Aciclovir is excreted in the breast milk, therefore it is recommended that caution should be used in breast-feeding women. It has been shown in limited test studies that the nursing infant is exposed to approximately 0. If nursing mothers have herpetic lesions near or on the breast, breast-feeding should be mechanism animation of action of acyclovir. In high doses, hallucinations have been reported.
Infrequent adverse effects 0. Aciclovir crystalline nephropathy is more common when aciclovir is given as a rapid infusion and in patients with dehydration and preexisting renal impairment.
Adequate hydration, a slower rate of infusion, and dosing based on renal function may reduce this risk. Infrequent adverse effects include erythema or itch. In-vitro replication studies have found a synergistic, dose-dependent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 when given with aciclovir. However, this effect has not been clinically established and more studies need to be done to evaluate the true potential of this synergy.
Reports of increased half life of aciclovir, as well as decreased urinary excretion and renal clearance have been shown in studies where probenecid is given simultaneously with aciclovir. Synergistic effects when administered with aciclovir and caution should be taken when administering aciclovir to patients receiving IV interferon.
Although administered often with aciclovir in HIV patients, neurotoxicity has been reported in at least one patient who presented with extreme drowsiness and lethargy 30—60 days after receiving IV aciclovir; symptoms resolved when aciclovir was discontinued, mechanism animation of action of acyclovir. Aciclovir may be quantitated in plasma or serum to monitor for drug accumulation in patients with renal dysfunction or to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in acute overdose victims. Aciclovir is converted by viral thymidine kinase to aciclovir monophosphate, which is then converted by host cell kinases to aciclovir triphosphate ACV-TP.
Mechanisms of resistance in HSV mechanism animation of action of acyclovir deficient viral thymidine kinase; and mutations to viral thymidine kinase or DNA polymerase, altering substrate sensitivity. Aciclovir is active against most species in the herpesvirus family.
In descending order of activity: When orally administered, peak plasma concentration occurs after 1—2 hours. Aciclovir was seen as the start can you abuse neurontin a new era in antiviral therapy, as it is extremely selective and low in cytotoxicity.
Nucleosides isolated from a Caribbean spongeCryptotethya cryptawere the basis for the synthesis of aciclovir. Gurwara on the adenosine analog acycloadenosine which showed promising antiviral activity. Richard Whitley, a University of Alabama at Birmingham researcher and pioneer in antiviral therapy, was the first to successfully use the drug in humans, mechanism animation of action of acyclovir.
It was originally marketed as Zovirax; patents expired in the s and since then it is generic and is marketed under many brand names worldwide, mechanism animation of action of acyclovir.
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