Lisdexamfetamine contracted from L - lys ine - dex tro amphetamine is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system CNS stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and binge eating disorder.
Lisdexamfetamine can be prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD in adults and children six and older, as well as for moderate to severe binge eating disorder in adults. Lisdexamfetamine is used primarily as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and binge eating disorder ;  it has similar off-label uses as those of other pharmaceutical amphetamines.
Reviews of anal administration of ascorbic acid stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of Anal administration of ascorbic acid. Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its ir of acetaminophen and athletic performance-enhancing effectssuch as increased endurance and alertness;   however, anal administration of ascorbic acid, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies, anal administration of ascorbic acid.
Products containing lisdexamfetamine have a side effect profile comparable to those containing amphetamine. At normal therapeutic doses, the physical side effects of amphetamine vary widely by age and from person to person. Amphetamine stimulates verapamil abuse medullary respiratory centersproducing faster and deeper breaths. USFDA-commissioned studies from indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events sudden deathheart attackand stroke and the medical use of amphetamine or other ADHD stimulants.
At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertnessapprehension, concentrationinitiative, anal administration of ascorbic acid, self-confidenceand sociability, mood swings elated mood followed by mildly depressed moodinsomnia or wakefulnessand decreased sense of fatigue. Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses,   meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously used amphetamine.
An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care. Pathological overactivation of the mesolimbic pathwaya dopamine pathway that connects the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbensplays a central role in amphetamine addiction. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use but is unlikely to arise from typical long-term medical use at therapeutic doses.
Chronic use of amphetamine at excessive doses causes alterations in gene expression in the mesocorticolimbic projectionwhich arise through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms, anal administration of ascorbic acid.
The effects of amphetamine on gene regulation are both dose- and route-dependent. As of[update] there is no effective pharmacotherapy for amphetamine addiction. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the most effective clinical treatment for psychostimulant addictions. In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicityor damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized acyclovir vs valacyclovir absorption dopamine terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function.
A severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may involve a variety of symptoms, such as delusions and paranoia. The optical isomers of amphetaminei. Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing a long duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day, with reduced potential for abuse. The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. Because no free dextroamphetamine is present in lisdexamfetamine capsules, dextroamphetamine does not become available through mechanical manipulation, such as crushing or simple extraction.
A relatively sophisticated biochemical process is needed to produce dextroamphetamine from lisdexamfetamine. The half-life of amphetamine enantiomers anal administration of ascorbic acid and vary with urine pH. The prodrug lisdexamfetamine is not as sensitive to pH as amphetamine when being absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract;  following absorption into the blood stream, it is converted by red blood cell -associated enzymes to dextroamphetamine via hydrolysis.
Lisdexamfetamine anal administration of ascorbic acid is one marketed formulation delivering dextroamphetamine. The following table compares the drug to other amphetamine pharmaceuticals. Lisdexamfetamine was developed by New River Pharmaceuticals, who were bought by Shire Pharmaceuticals shortly before lisdexamfetamine began being marketed. It was developed for the intention of creating a longer-lasting and less-easily abused version of dextroamphetamine, as the requirement of conversion into dextroamphetamine via enzymes in the red blood cells delays its onset of action, regardless of the route of ingestion.
In Januarylisdexamfetamine was approved by the U. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of binge eating acyclovir is a guanine analog in adults. As of July lisdexamfetamine was sold under the following brands: Elvanse, Samexid, Tyvense, Venvanse, and Vyvanse.
Some clinical trials that used lisdexamfetamine as an add-on therapy with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor SNRI for treatment-resistant depression indicated that this is no more effective than the use of an SSRI or SNRI alone. In those studies patients showed significant improvement in energy, mood, and psychomotor activity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Levoamphetamine, anal administration of ascorbic acid. C Risk not ruled out. Part of this section is transcluded from Amphetamine. This section is transcluded from Amphetamine. Signaling cascade in the nucleus accumbens that results in amphetamine addiction v t e.
Pharmacodynamics of amphetamine in a dopamine neuron v t e. Metabolic pathways of amphetamine in humans find drug abilify 9].
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. History and culture of substituted amphetamines. Due to pharmacological differences between these medications e.
The product uses an ion exchange resin to achieve extended release of the amphetamine base. Text color Transcription factors. Retrieved 5 August Retrieved 23 August Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: United States Food and Drug Administration.
Retrieved 10 July DEA — Department of Justice. Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 20 March Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood.
Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure. Among significantly improved outcomes, the largest effect sizes were found for combination treatment. The greatest improvements were associated with academic, self-esteem, or social function outcomes.
Recent studies have demonstrated that stimulants, along with the non-stimulants atomoxetine and extended-release guanfacine, are continuously effective for more than 2-year treatment periods with few and tolerable adverse effects.
The effectiveness of long-term therapy includes not only the core symptoms of ADHD, but also improved quality of life and academic achievements. The most concerning short-term adverse effects of stimulants, such as elevated blood pressure and heart rate, waned in long-term follow-up studies.
Monoamines, Acetylcholine, and Orexin". A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd ed. Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". Therapeutic relatively low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in normal subjects and those with ADHD.
Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks Beyond these general permissive effects, dopamine acting via D1 receptors and norepinephrine acting at several receptors can, at optimal levels, enhance working memory and aspects of attention.
Only one paper 53 examining anal administration of ascorbic acid beyond 36 months met the review criteria, anal administration of ascorbic acid.
Retrieved 12 November The procognitive actions of psychostimulants are only associated with low doses. Surprisingly, despite nearly 80 years of clinical use, the neurobiology of the procognitive actions of psychostimulants has only recently been systematically investigated. Collectively, this evidence indicates that at low, clinically relevant doses, anal administration of ascorbic acid, psychostimulants are devoid of the behavioral and neurochemical actions that define this class of drugs and instead act largely as cognitive enhancers improving PFC-dependent function.
In particular, in both animals and humans, lower doses maximally improve performance in tests of working memory and response inhibition, whereas maximal suppression of overt behavior and facilitation of attentional processes occurs at higher doses.
Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. The results of this meta-analysis Amphetamine has been shown to improve consolidation of information 0. Neural and Neuroendocrine Control of the Internal Milieu". Dopamine acts in the nucleus accumbens to attach motivational significance to stimuli associated with reward. Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 2 December Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, anal administration of ascorbic acid, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training National Collegiate Athletic Association, anal administration of ascorbic acid.
Retrieved 8 October InChandler and Blair 47 showed significant increases in knee extension strength, acceleration, anaerobic capacity, time to exhaustion during exercise, pre-exercise and maximum heart rates, and time to exhaustion during maximal oxygen consumption VO2 max testing after administration of 15 mg of dextroamphetamine versus placebo. Most of the information to answer this question has been obtained in the past decade through studies of fatigue rather than an attempt to systematically investigate the effect of ADHD drugs on exercise.
In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output reveals that after dopamine reuptake inhibition, subjects are able to maintain a higher power output compared with placebo. For instance, amphetamine, which increases concentrations of dopamine at the synaptic cleft advances the start of responding during interval timing, whereas antagonists of D2 type dopamine receptors typically slow timing; Depletion of dopamine in healthy volunteers impairs timing, while amphetamine releases synaptic dopamine and speeds up timing.
Aside from accounting for the reduced performance of mentally fatigued participants, this model rationalizes the reduced RPE and hence improved cycling time trial performance of athletes using a glucose mouthwash Chambers et al.
Dopamine stimulating drugs are known to enhance aspects of exercise performance Roelands et al. This indicates that subjects did not feel they were producing anal administration of ascorbic acid power and consequently more heat. Taken together, these data indicate strong ergogenic effects of an increased DA concentration in the brain, without any change in the perception of effort.